Dr. Ronan Connolly

Academic qualifications

  • B.Sc. (Hons.) in Chemistry with minor in Mathematics (University College Dublin, 2000)
  • Ph.D. in Computational Chemistry (University College Dublin, 2003)


  • 2018-present: Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences (CERES-science.com)
  • 2009-present: Independent research into climate change
  • 2004-2018: Environmental research into developing sustainable methods of aquaculture, wastewater treatment and heat exchangers

Other websites

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Peer-reviewed publications

Climate science and environmental science

  1. W. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, S.-I. Akasofu, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, A. Bianchini, W.M. Briggs, C.J. Butler, R.G. Cionco, M. Crok, A.G. Elias, V.M. Fedorov, F. Gervais, H. Harde, G.W. Henry, D.V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D.R. Legates, A.R. Lupo, S. Maruyama, P. Moore, M. Ogurtsov, C. ÓhAiseadha, M.J. Oliveira, S.-S. Park, S. Qiu, G. Quinn, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, J. Steele, L. Szarka, H.L. Tanaka, M.K. Taylor, F. Vahrenholt, V.M. Velasco Herrera and W. Zhang (2023). “The Detection and Attribution of Northern Hemisphere Land Surface Warming (1850–2018) in Terms of Human and Natural Factors: Challenges of Inadequate Data”, Climate, 11(9), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11090179. (Open access).
  2. R. Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C.J. Butler, R.G. Cionco, A.G. Elias, V. Fedorov, H. Harde, G.W. Henry, D.V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D.R. Legates, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, V.M. Velasco Herrera, H. Yan and W.J. Zhang (2023). “Challenges in the detection and attribution of Northern Hemisphere surface temperature trends since 1850”. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysicshttps://doi.org/10.1088/1674-4527/acf18eSupplementary MaterialsPre-print version.
  3. G. Katata, R. Connolly and P. O’Neill (2023). Evidence of urban blending in homogenized temperature records in Japan and in the United States: implications for the reliability of global land surface air temperature data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-22-0122.1. Pre-print.
  4. V.M. Velasco Herrera, W. Soon, Š. Knoška, J.A. Perez-Peraza, R.G. Cionco, S.M. Kudryavtsev, S. Qiu, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, M. Švanda, J. Acosta Jara & G. Pietro Gregori (2022). The New Composite Solar Flare Index from Solar Cycle 17 to Cycle 24 (1937 – 2020). Solar Physics 297, 108 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-022-02035-z. Read-only access to full article. Pre-print version. Supplementary Materials.
  5. O. Dingley, M. Connolly, R. Connolly and W. Soon (2022). A comparison of different metrics for analyzing the troposphere/stratosphere transitions using high-resolution ozonesondes. Environmental Science Proceedings, 19, 14. Proceedings of The 5th International Electronic Conference on Atmospheric Sciences. https://doi.org/10.3390/ecas2022-12807. (Open access).
  6. P. O’Neill, Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, B. Chimani, M. Crok, R. de Vos, H. Harde, P. Kajaba, P. Nojarov, R. Przybylak, D. Rasol, Oleg Skrynyk, Olesya Skrynyk, P. Štěpánek, A. Wypych and P. Zahradníček (2022). Evaluation of the homogenization adjustments applied to European temperature records in the Global Historical Climatology Network dataset. Atmosphere 13(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020285. (Open access).
  7. M. Connolly, Ronan Connolly, Willie Soon, Víctor M. Velasco Herrera, Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco and Nancy E. Quaranta (2021). Analyzing atmospheric circulation patterns using mass fluxes calculated from weather balloon measurements: North Atlantic region as a case study. Atmosphere 12(11), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111439. (Open access) (pdf).
  8. Ronan Connolly, W. Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C. J. Butler, R. G. Cionco, A. G. Elias, V. M. Fedorov, H. Harde, G. W. Henry, D. V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D. R. Legates, S. Lüning, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, H. van Loon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. C. Willson, H. Yan and W. Zhang (2021). How much has the Sun influenced Northern Hemisphere temperature trends? An ongoing debate. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 21, 131. https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-4527/21/6/131. (pdf).
  9. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. Quinn, Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon (2020). Energy and climate policy — An evaluation of global climate change expenditure 2011–2018. Energies, 13, 4839. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184839. (pdf). 
  10. Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly, R.M. Carter and W. Soon (2020). How much human-caused global warming should we expect with business-as-usual (BAU) climate policies? A semi-empirical assessment. Energies, 13, 1365. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061365. (pdf).
  11. Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, D.R. Legates, R.G. Cionco and V. M. Velasco Herrera (2019). Northern hemisphere snow-cover trends (1967-2018): A comparison between climate models and observations. Geosciences, 9(3), 135. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030135. (pdf).
  12. W.W-H. Soon, Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly, P. O’Neill, J. Zheng, Q. Ge, Z. Hao and H. Yan (2019). Reply to Li & Yang’s comments on “Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China. Earth-Science Reviews”, 189, 102950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102950. (pre-print pdf).
  13. W.W-H. Soon, Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly, P. O’Neill, J. Zheng, Q. Ge, Z. Hao and H. Yan (2018). Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China. Earth-Science Reviews, 185, 80-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.05.013. (pre-print pdf).
  14. Ronan Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon (2017). Re-calibration of Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62, 1317-1340. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2017.1324974. (pdf).
  15. W. Soon, Ronan Connolly and M. Connolly (2015). Re-evaluating the role of solar variability on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since the 19th century. Earth-Science Reviews, 150, 409-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.010. (pre-print pdf).


  1. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. A. Quinn, R. Connolly, A. Wilson, M. Connolly, W. Soon and P. Hynds (2023). Unintended Consequences of COVID-19 Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) for Population Health and Health Inequalities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(7), 5223. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075223. (Open access).

Polymer physics

  1. Ronan Connolly, G. Bellesia, E.G. Timoshenko, Yu.A. Kuznetsov, S. Elli and F. Ganazzoli (2005). “Intrinsic” and “topological” stiffness in branched polymers. Macromolecules, 38, 5288-5299. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0477246
  2. S. Elli, F. Ganazzoli, E.G. Timoshenko, Yu.A. Kuznetsov and Ronan Connolly (2004). Size and persistence length of molecular bottle-brushes by Monte Carlo simulations. Journal of Chemical Physics, 120, 6257. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1651052
  3. Ronan Connolly, E.G. Timoshenko and Yu.A. Kuznetsov (2004). Monte Carlo simulations of amphiphilic co-dendrimers in dilute solution. Macromolecules, 37, 7381-7392. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma049638b
  4. Ronan Connolly, E.G. Timoshenko and Yu.A. Kuznetsov (2003). Monte Carlo simulations of infinitely dilute solutions of amphiphilic deblock star copolymers. Journal of Chemical Physics, 119, 8736. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1610445
  5. E.G. Timoshenko, Yu.A. Kuznetsov and Ronan Connolly (2002). Confirmations of dendrimers in dilute solution. Journal of Chemical Physics, 117, 9050. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1514571

Non peer-reviewed publications


  1. G.A. Quinn, C. ÓhAiseadha, Ronan Connolly and P. Hynds (2021). “A tale of two scientific paradigms: Conflicting scientific opinions on what ‘following the science’ means for SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic”. OSF Preprints. August 11. doi:10.31219/osf.io/s9z2p.

Open Peer Review Journal articles

  1. Ronan Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias III. Estimating the extent of bias in the Historical Climatology Network datasets. Open Peer Review Journal, 34 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/34. (pdf).
  2. Ronan Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias II. An assessment of the NASA GISS urbanization adjustment method. Open Peer Review Journal, 31 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/31. (pdf).
  3. Ronan Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias I. Is it a negligible problem for global temperature estimates? Open Peer Review Journal, 28 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.2 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/28. (pdf).
  4. M. Connolly and Ronan Connolly(2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere III. Pervective power. Open Peer Review Journal, 25 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/atmospheric-science/25. (pdf).
  5. M. Connolly and Ronan Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere II. Multimerization of atmospheric gases above the troposphere. Open Peer Review Journal, 22 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/atmospheric-science/22. (pdf).
  6. M. Connolly and Ronan Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere I. Phase change associated with tropopause. Open Peer Review Journal, 19 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/atmospheric-science/19. (pdf).
  7. Ronan Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Global temperature changes of the last millennium. Open Peer Review Journal, 16 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 1.0 http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/16. (pdf).
  8. Ronan Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Has poor station quality biased U.S. temperature trend estimates? Open Peer Review Journal, 11 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft). http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/11. (pdf).

Other climate science and environmental science articles

  1. W. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and others (2021). “‘Fact Checks’ by Non-Experts Are Shutting Down Genuine Scientific Inquiry”. The Epoch Times, 22 September 2021. Link to article.
  2. M. Connolly, R. Connolly, W. Soon, P. Moore and I. Connolly (2018). Analysis of Greenpeace’s business model & philosophy: Greenpeace wants a piece of your green. (pdf).
  3. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, I. Connolly and W. Soon (2017). Some key climate infographics. Prepared for the Heartland’s 12th International Conference on Climate Change, March 23-24, 2017, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (pdf).
  4. M. Connolly and R. Connolly (2017). Scientific opinions on climate change. Irish Farmers Journal, 17 June 2017, p30-31 (Paywalled). (Unedited pdf).
  5. M. Connolly, R. Connolly and I. Connolly (2014). Yellow River wind farm: Assessment of Environmental Impact Statement. (pdf).

A bit about me

I have been interested in science since I was a teenager, and I received several awards in the Aer Lingus Young Scientists Exhibition (a popular national science competition for schoolchildren in Ireland) for my research into chloroplast migration in the Caulerpa floridana marine algae. Specifically, I received the Irish Professors of Botany Award in 1994 & 1995; the Institute of Biology Ireland Award in 1995 & 1996; and 1st prize in the Biological and Ecological Sciences Senior Individual category in 1995 & 1996.

I also was interested in mathematics (and competed in the Irish Mathematical Olympiad), and an avid computer programmer – in 1996, I came 4th in the Under-18 category of the IBM DCU All Ireland Schools Programming Competition, and I was awarded the Prof. Rykov Trophy for computer programming in 1994.

So, naturally, I studied science in college. I specialised in Chemistry, and I received the Bristol Myers Squibb Award for the best final year project (in the Measurement/Calculation section). But, at this stage I had become impressed by the great “polymaths” and realised that I wanted to be a multi-disciplinary scientist. So, when I was offered the chance to do a Ph.D. which combined chemistry, biophysics, polymer physics and computer modelling, I took it. My thesis was “Conformations of branched polymers”, for which I was awarded the BOC Gases Award for best Ph.D. research.

After my Ph.D., I began working with my father, Michael, on a number of topics. We have been researching and developing:

  • New technologies and techniques for fish-farming, aquaponics and waste-water treatment
  • Low cost heat-exchangers
  • New energy efficient building materials and techniques

We have investigated the life cycles and spawning conditions for hundreds of species of fish, invertebrates and algae.

Along the way, I built several houses and buildings with Michael, and learnt a lot about different construction techniques.

We began actively researching climate change in early 2009. We initially launched this blog in 2014, and re-launched it in 2021.

Finally, I love music, and I am interested in history, archaeology and anthropology.