Publications

Peer-reviewed publications

  1. Michael Connolly, Ronan Connolly, Willie Soon, Víctor M. Velasco Herrera, Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco and Nancy E. Quaranta (2021). Analyzing atmospheric circulation patterns using mass fluxes calculated from weather balloon measurements: North Atlantic region as a case study. Atmosphere 12(11), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111439. (Open access) (pdf).
  2. R. Connolly, W. Soon, Michael Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C. J. Butler, R. G. Cionco, A. G. Elias, V. M. Fedorov, H. Harde, G. W. Henry, D. V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D. R. Legates, S. Lüning, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, H. van Loon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. C. Willson, H. Yan and W. Zhang (2021). How much has the Sun influenced Northern Hemisphere temperature trends? An ongoing debate. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 21, 131. https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-4527/21/6/131. (pdf). (arXiv preprint).
  3. C. ÓhAiseadha, G. Quinn, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon (2020). Energy and climate policy — An evaluation of global climate change expenditure 2011–2018. Energies, 13, 4839. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184839. (pdf). For a summary of our key findings, see here.
  4. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, R.M. Carter and W. Soon (2020). How much human-caused global warming should we expect with business-as-usual (BAU) climate policies? A semi-empirical assessment. Energies, 13, 1365. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061365. (pdf). For a summary of our key findings, see here.
  5. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, W. Soon, D.R. Legates, R.G. Cionco and V. M. Velasco Herrera (2019). Northern hemisphere snow-cover trends (1967-2018): A comparison between climate models and observations. Geosciences, 9(3), 135. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030135 (pdf). For a summary of our key findings, see here.
  6. W. W.-H. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, P. O’Neill, J. Zheng, Q. Ge, Z. Hao and H. Yan (2019). Reply to Li & Yang’s comments on “Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China”. Earth-Science Reviews, 189, 102950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102950. (pre-print pdf).
  7. W.W-H. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly, P. O’Neill, J. Zheng, Q. Ge, Z. Hao and H. Yan (2018). Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China. Earth-Science Reviews, 185, 80-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.05.013 (pre-print pdf). For a summary of our key findings, see here.
  8. R. Connolly, M. Connolly and W. Soon (2017). Re-calibration of Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62, 1317-1340. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2017.1324974 (pdf). For a summary of our key findings, see here.
  9. W. Soon, R. Connolly and M. Connolly (2015). Re-evaluating the role of solar variability on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since the 19th century. Earth-Science Reviews, 150, 409-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.010 (pre-print pdf). For a summary of our key findings, see here.

Open Peer Review Journal articles

In 2014, we published 8 articles on a website we set up called Open Peer Review Journal. The website is a new approach to open peer review where anybody can register and provide review comments on a given article. Articles are “living” and can be updated by the authors as new comments are made.

On the urbanization bias problem

  • R. Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias I. Is it a negligible problem for global temperature estimates? Open Peer Review Journal, 28 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.2 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/28. (pdf).
  • R. Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias II. An assessment of the NASA GISS urbanization adjustment method. Open Peer Review Journal, 31 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/31. (pdf).
  • R. Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Urbanization bias III. Estimating the extent of bias in the Historical Climatology Network datasets. Open Peer Review Journal, 34 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/34. (pdf).

For a summary of these three papers, see here.

On the physics of the Earth’s atmosphere

  • M. Connolly and R. Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere I. Phase change associated with tropopause. Open Peer Review Journal, 19 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/atmospheric-science/19. (pdf).
  • M. Connolly and R. Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere II. Multimerization of atmospheric gases above the troposphere. Open Peer Review Journal, 22 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/atmospheric-science/22. (pdf).
  • M. Connolly and R. Connolly (2014). The physics of the Earth’s atmosphere III. Pervective power. Open Peer Review Journal, 25 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft) http://oprj.net/articles/atmospheric-science/25. (pdf).

For a summary of these three papers, see here. For an April 2021 update on progress on this research, see here.

On “siting biases” in global temperature records

  • R. Connolly and M. Connolly (2014). Has poor station quality biased U.S. temperature trend estimates? Open Peer Review Journal, 11 (Clim. Sci.), ver. 0.1 (non peer reviewed draft). http://oprj.net/articles/climate-science/11. (pdf).

For a summary of this paper, see here.

On paleoclimate reconstructions of past global temperatures

For a summary of this paper, see here.

Other non peer-reviewed publications

  • W. Soon, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and others (2021). “‘Fact Checks’ by Non-Experts Are Shutting Down Genuine Scientific Inquiry”. The Epoch Times, 22 September 2021. Link to article.
  • M. Connolly, R. Connolly, W. Soon, P. Moore and I. Connolly (2018). Analysis of Greenpeace’s business model & philosophy: Greenpeace wants a piece of your green. (pdf).
  • R. Connolly, M. Connolly, I. Connolly and W. Soon (2017). Some key climate infographics. Prepared for the Heartland’s 12th International Conference on Climate Change, March 23-24, 2017, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (pdf).
  • M. Connolly and R. Connolly (2017). Scientific opinions on climate change. Irish Farmers Journal, 17 June 2017, p30-31 (Paywalled). Link to unedited version (pdf).
  • M. Connolly, R. Connolly and I. Connolly (2014). Yellow River wind farm: Assessment of Environmental Impact Statement. (pdf). For some extra details, see here.